Breastfeeding Medicine

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President’s Corner – Breastfeeding Mitigates a Disaster

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Volume 8, Number 3, 2013
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2013.9989


Arthur I. Eidelman
Holocaust Memorial Day, or as it is called in Israel and worldwide ‘‘Yom Hashoah,’’ is a combination of the most depressing sadness, as we memorialize the 6,000,000 murdered victims of Nazi Germany and their European collaborators, and, paradoxically, a celebration of those individuals who somehow survived the horrors of mass murder and ethnic cleansing. The realization that 1.5 million infants and children were singled out for elimination by the Nazis so as to prevent the chances of a historical continuity of the European Jewish community is somehow counterbalanced by the miraculous stories of infants surviving, especially in the most unlikely circumstances and conditions.

This past Yom Hashoah (April 8, 2013) I had the opportunity to view a documentary entitled ‘‘Geboren in KZ’’ (‘‘Born in a Concentration Camp,’’ a film by Eva Gruberova and Martina Gawaz for GDR Television), which recounts the unbelievable story of seven infants who were born in 1945 in the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp. The fact that the mothers of these infants were able to conceal their pregnancies and reach term without being detected in and of itself defies comprehension, for as we know the policy of the Nazis was to send any woman diagnosed as pregnant directly to the crematorium. Some of the women even escaped detection and ‘‘selection’’ for death by the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele in
Auschwitz before being transferred to Dachau. No less miraculous so was their ability to maintain a minimal degree of nutrition to sustain their pregnancy until term or near term. Months later, when Dachau was liberated by the U.S. Army, the GIs to their astonishment discovered among the 30,000 survivors of the camp seven mothers and their seven infants ranging in age from 1 to 6 months (three boys and four girls).
To their wonderment they found that the infants were relatively thriving with few if any discernible medical problems. The film documents visually the U.S. Army’s surprise and the images of the healthy infants. Almost in passing, when they asked how the babies survived the unbearable conditions in the concentration camp, the answer they received was simply that the infants were breastfed, with two of the mothers acting as wet nurses to supplement those mothers whose milk supply was marginal. Not only did all the infants survive, after liberation they grew normally, ultimately married, and raised their own families, truly a testimony to their fortune in defying their presumed proscribed fate and the Nazis’ nefarious plan for a final solution to the Jewish problem.

And yes, they were breastfed successfully and thus survived the most disastrous medical and nutritional condition imaginable. The infants’ survival once again provides evidence of what should be axiomatic for all those who have been charged with the responsibility for organizing our communities for potential disasters, what is termed ‘‘disaster preparedness response and recovery.’’ As clearly stated in the ABM Statement entitled ‘‘Position on Breastfeeding’’1: ‘‘In situations of disaster or food insecurity, infants who are not breastfed have a markedly higher risk of infant mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases.’’ This conclusion was confirmed in a recent published study2 that analyzed the effect
of breastmilk substitutes and the incidence of diarrhea in infants after the 2006 earthquake in Java. The authors concluded that ‘‘there were strong associations between receipt of breast milk substitutes and changes in feeding practices and between receipt of infant formula and diarrhea. Uncontrollable distribution of infant formula exacerbates the risk of diarrhea among infants and young children in emergencies.’’

It should be clear that the key word in this quote is ‘‘uncontrollable,’’ meaning the non-medically indicated distribution of formula frequently by well-meaning non-governmental organizations that are insufficiently sophisticated or versed to understand that their actions are counterproductive for infant health. No less so are the actions of the formula companies’ distribution policies, which reflect at time marketing opportunities rather than legitimate public health needs. Binns et al.3 emphasized this in their recent article entitled ‘‘Ethical Issues in Infant Feeding After Disasters,’’ which summarized the issues in two pithy sentences: ‘‘Mothers who are injured or short of food can still continue breastfeeding and don’t need formula’’ and ‘‘Where formula must be used, health workers need to follow the highest ethical standards to avoid promoting infant formula to vulnerable communities in the post recovery phase.’’

Gribble4 further highlighted and extended this concern regarding the inappropriate behavior of formula companies and public health officials to the frequent detrimental role of the media, particularly in its encouraging harmful aid in the form of infant formula and in reporting incorrectly that stress5 interferes with the success of breastfeeding. Gribble,4 in analyzing the consequences of the 2008 earthquake in China and the cyclones in Myanmar, described the successful activities of an interagency called the Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies (IYCF-E), which developed an ‘‘Operational Guidance for Emergency Relief Staff and Programme Managers.’’6 The Guidance functioned in part on the following principles that served as a basis for the actions of both the agencies and media communications:
1. ‘‘Babies fed anything other than breast milk are particularly vulnerable in emergencies.’’
2. ‘‘Use of infant formula or other milk products is dangerous in emergencies and should be avoided.’’
3. ‘‘The way to help babies survive in an emergency is to help their mothers continue breastfeeding.’’
4. ‘‘Donations of infant formula are not needed and are unhelpful.’’
5. ‘‘Aid organizations need help from media immediately after the start of the emergency to prevent arrival of
donations of infant formula.’’

Natural disasters are inevitable and part of the realities and vagaries of living on earth. Our role as caretakers is to prepare for them and not compound their consequences by disrupting the natural order of infant feeding (e.g., breastfeeding and the use of human milk). It is hoped that we will not need another round of evidence from manmade disasters such as the Holocaust of World War II to convince us that survival even in the most deprived circumstances is dependent on maintaining that maternal–infant dyadic breastfeeding nurturing relationship. Those infants who were born into the horrors of the Nazi camps and survived proved it, and that should be enough to convince the doubters. The lessons of the Holocaust are many, and we are charged to remember those who went through that hell and their message of hope for future generations.

1. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Board of Directors. Position on breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med 2008;3:267–270.
2. Hipgrave DB, Assefa F, Winoto A, et al. Donated breast milk substitutes and incidence of diarrhea among infants and young children after the May 2006 earthquake in Yogyakarta and Central Java. Public Health Nutr 2012;15:307–315.
3. Binns CW, Lee KK, Tang L, et al. Ethical issues in infant feeding after disasters. Asia Pac J Public Health 201;24:672–680.
4. Gribble KD. Media messages and the needs of infants and young children after Cyclone Nargis and the WenChuan earthquake. Disaster 2013;37:80–100.
5. Hill PD. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers. West J Nurs Res 2005;27:676–693.
6. IFE Core Group. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies: Operational Guidance for Emergency Relief Staff and Programme Managers version 2.1 February 2007. (accessed April 11, 2013).
—Arthur I. Eidelman, MD, FABM, FAAP
President, Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

The First 1000 Days

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The Annual ABM Meeting in Chicago this year was amazing–truly one of the best. Kudos to the conference planners, staff, and faculty.  I was particularly interested in 1000 Days: The Window of Opportunity by Lucy Martinez Sullivan, MBA.  Some of you may be familiar with this organization, but since I wasn’t, let me give you a bit of background.  1,000 Days

is a partnership between governments, the private sector and civil society organizations which promotes targeted action and investment to improve nutrition for mothers and children in the 1,000 days between a woman’s pregnancy and her child’s 2nd birthday when better nutrition can have a life-changing impact on a child’s future and help break the cycle of poverty…The partnership serves as a platform to encourage investment and strengthen policies to improve early nutrition in the developing world in alignment with the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Framework, an approach that seeks to coordinate and accelerate international efforts to combat undernutrition.

It really is amazing that this organization is bringing together so many different types of organizations from all over the world to fight malnutrition and undernutrition.  It makes sense that Ms. Sullivan came to speak to a room full of lactation specialists, right?  It makes perfect sense since breastmilk is the normal nutrition for a baby/infant/toddler–and gives that child the best chance of survival.  Nutrition from breastmilk is important for all babies, but especially vital for those born in developing countries since this can mean the difference between life and death. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by NKSriraman

November 5, 2012 at 8:52 am

WBW 2012 – Understanding the Past: Planning the Future

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ABM is pleased to be supporting and participating in activities in celebration of the 20th World Breastfeeding Week. This annual event is celebrated during the first week in August to commemorate the signing of the Innocenti Declaration, August 1990.

This year, World Breastfeeding Week, or World Breastfeeding Month in several countries, is celebrated in August. As noted on the World Breastfeeding Week website: “20 years ago, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) launched its first World Breastfeeding Week campaign with the theme: Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI).”

This year the theme is Understanding the Past: Planning the Future – Celebrating 10 years of WHO/UNICEF’s Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding.  We are asked to recall what has happened in efforts to support infant and young child feeding over these past 20 years, celebrate successes and achievements, assess the status of implementation of the Global Strategy, call for action to bridge the remaining gaps in policy and programmes, and draw public attention on the state of policy and programmes.

Many countries adopt complementary themes.  For example, in the US August is National Breastfeeding Month, this year adopting a social marketing theme:  “Everyone Can Help Make Breastfeeding Easier”: 20 Actions in 20 Days, based on the 20 Actions in the Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding.

Wishing you all a happy – and productive – World Breastfeeding Week!

Don’t forget to register for the 17th Annual International Meeting to be held October 11-14, 2012 in Chicago. Early-bird rates end August 15.

Written by bfmed

August 1, 2012 at 3:04 pm

La dolce vita of breastfeeding in Trieste

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La dolce vita in Trieste…

The conference is over, the bills are paid, but it still resounds in my memory: the 4th ABM European Regional Meeting for Physicians, held on 19th-20th of May in Trieste, Italy.

The meeting was organized by a team of BURLO Trieste under the leadership of Adriano Cattaneo and myself. The main organizer was the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine and cosponsor was Burlo Trieste, who supported us wholeheartedly.

It is not easy to communicate with people who come from all over the world. Only 14 attendees were participating in their native language, English. All others were expressing themselves in (for them) foreign languages. But that didn’t matter. There was a wish to understand each other. As Dr. Adriano Cattaneo put it at the beginning of the conference: No more discrimination: 98 participants from 29 countries, speaking many, many languages, were interacting, were becoming friends and were planning for future collaboration and mutual support. And many ABM members met each other, sometimes for the first time, sometimes it was a happy “nice to see you again” after former meetings in Göppingen, Vienna and Torun.

In general the meeting took place in a very good atmosphere with very lively discussions, both in the sessions and during the breaks and dinner. The only real problem was that there was much too little time for discussion during the sessions. The lectures were excellently received and many participants reported afterwards, that they were inspired by the event.

I want to share with you some of the feedback that was given to this conference:
– “Excellent preparations, excellent that topics like BN and peristaltic were discussed in a differentiated way, very good that each level of English is accepted; this allows really international participation. Lots of impulses, lots of missing puzzle pieces!
– “It was my first ABM Meeting and I enjoyed it very much. Trieste is a nice place for such a congress. Listening to people from different countries and talking to them is very inspiring! Thank you!

A highlight of the conference was a small bus trip on the end of the first day to a central church in Trieste with a wonderful view on the city and the Adriatic Sea. Afterwards the busses took all participants to a restaurant near Miramar directly on the seashore, where there was much time to speak about experiences and to enjoy the evening. A real dolce vita in Trieste, with discussions, but also with warmth and laughter, with tumbling of ideas and exchange of opinions.

Because of the conference, some European collaboration projects have started, most notably a project under the leadership of Dr. Pat Hoddinott on an RCT of proactive telephone support for parents of premature babies (FEST). As a result of the conference many participants asked if it is possible to have a European Regional Meeting in their country. We have offers from Romania (Bucharest), Croatia (Split), Spain (Barcelona), Slovakia (Bratislava), the Netherlands (Amsterdam) and Denmark (Copenhagen – in connection with the next European conference of lactation consultants). So we can at least organize 5 or 6 further regional meetings!

And being a breastfeeding conference, it is only appropriate to mention, that this meeting was very nourishing for all of us. The meeting inspires us to continue to work for the best of children and their mothers – and fathers – around the world.

Elien Rouw, MD, FABM, is a member of the board of directors of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine.

Posts on this blog reflect the opinions of individual ABM members, not the organization as a whole.

Written by elienrouw

July 15, 2012 at 11:02 am

Buongiorno from the 4th ABM European Regional Meeting for Physicians in Trieste Italy!

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Yesterday was the first day of the 4th ABM European Regional Meeting for Physicians in beautiful Trieste Italy.  As this is very close to the childhood home of my grandfather, I feel like I have come home.  The city itself is a beautiful Italian city perched on the edge of the sparkling blue Adriatic Sea.  Arriving by car from Germany two days ago, the vistas from high above the city out over the sea were breath-taking.

The meeting started off with an informal “pizza party” of sorts at a lovely restaurant nearby the hotels on the canal and close to the sea Friday night.  The multinational attendance was immediately evident by the accents and languages one heard.

We began bright and early Saturday morning on a gorgeous sunny day.  There are 100 attendees from 29  countries and 6 countinents—a mini United Nations!    OK—really 5 continents, but one attendee originally was from Australia and another works part-time in Australia, so I think that counts for 6 continents!!  Elien Rouw (Germany) and Adriano Cattaneo (Italy) opened the program as the conference organizers.  The first plenary session was a fascinating look at “The mechanics of breastfeeding revised” by Michael Woolridge (UK).  The next session was a roundtable discussion, “Ensuring effective feeds: biological nurturing, learning how a baby latches on, or both?”  It was lead by presentations by Christina Smillie (US), M. Ersilia Armeni (Italy) and Kathleen Marinelli (US), and engendered lively discussion from the attendees!

In the afternoon, we focused on Baby-Friendly worldwide.  Maria Bettinelli (Italy) spoke of “Breastfeeding and continuum of care throughout the life cycle: a framework for action in the Baby Friendly Initiative.”  We learned not only of Baby-Friendly in the hospital, but of the Italian Baby-Friendly Community program.  This was followed by the second Round Table, this one on “Experiences and Challenges in countries implementing the Baby-Friendly Initiative.  Our speakers to inform this session were Martha Muresan (Romania), Irena Zakarija-Grkovic (Croatia), and Carol Williams (UK).  The last plenary presentation of the day was “Baby-Friendly Initiative: beyond information towards relational approaches with women” by Fiona Dykes (UK).  This thought-provoking discussion was followed by two platform abstract presentations—Maria Astengo (Italy)”Breastfeeding Promotion and Support in Public Health Services: Experiences of a Local Health Agency” and Beatriz Flores (Spain) Why Does Spain have so Few BFHI Hospitals?”

There were also many posters on display from all over the world on many different topics in breastfeeding.  Seeing the ideas out there and the work that is being done, and the animation of colleagues interacting over this work, was very exciting indeed!

At the end of the day, we all met by the waterfront and took a bus tour of part of the city.  We had the opportunity to see the main Piazza, Roman ruins, different beautiful parts of the city, the Church of San  Giusto with its beautiful paintings of the breastfeeding Madonna, not to mention the added bonus of the vistas of the sea and the city from that height.  Then the buses took us to a seaside restaurant for a traditional Italian multicourse dinner, with nothing but good food, great Italian wine and time to network and talk with colleagues and new friends.  It was a lovely somewhat magical evening for all.

On Day 2, we began with a presentation that got the audience as worried as the speaker—”The inter-relationships between pregnancy, obesity and breastfeeding” by Kathleen Marinelli (US).  The figures are staggering and very frightening.  This was followed by a fascinating Roundtable: “Continuing breastfeeding and the timing and introduction of complementary foods” by Adriano Cattaneo (Italy), Carol Williams (UK) and Maria Teresa Hernandez-Aguilar (Spain).  We may sound different to one another, dress differently, but we certainly all face the same issues.  Pat Hoddinott (UK) gave a stimulating discussion of her research on “Family perspectives on breastfeeding—what would make a difference?”  This was followed by the last presentation of the conference, “The social impact of breastfeeding” by Anne Marie Oudesluys-Murphy (Netherlands).

The sessions were wonderful, informative, and lively at discussion time.  Breaks and lunch—well, let’s talk food first.  Can’t top freshly made espresso or cappuccino instead of just an urn of old cooling coffee in my book!  And trying to be “good” I had to avoid the Italian pastries (sigh).  Prosciutto, cheese, bread, pasta and couscous salads for lunch…doesn’t get much better—except that it was all served on a sunny rooftop terrace overlooking the city.  How to make it better—many physicians with many accents all talking with one another.  And I kept hearing snatches of conversation with words like “collaboration”, “share our research protocol”, “compare how we do it with how you are doing it”, “interested in looking at this with me”?   Isn’t this what ABM is all about??  Our Mission Statement:”The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is a worldwide organization of physicians dedicated to the promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding and human lactation.  Its mission is to unite into one association members of the various medical specialties with this common purpose.”  Our Vision Statement: ABM is an independent self-sustaining multi-specialty international physician-to-physician organization that promotes breastfeeding education, knowledge, attitudes and skills for physicians, worldwide.  These discussions certainly support out Mission and our Vision!  I learned we share many of the same issues, and we can certainly learn innovation from one another.  This IS an international meeting in the best sense of the world.  Elien is to be praised for her hard work and persistence in starting and continuing these meetings.  I for one, am very impressed and am looking forward to future meetings with great expectation!  A number of members have offered to host the next meeting in their countries after attending this meeting.  Our Strategic plan has us holding the annual meeting outside North America by 2015.  I would posit that with the attendance the European meetings have drawn, and the success they have attained, we could be considering holding the 2015 meeting in Europe.  Elien—what do you think??!!

Kathleen Marinelli MD, IBCLC, FABM is a neonatologist a Board member of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, and Chair of the ABM Protocol Committee.

Posts on this blog reflect the opinions of individual ABM members, not the organization as a whole.

Written by kmarinellimd

May 20, 2012 at 5:08 pm

Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water

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A new study out of Scotland is making headlines today that current recommendations for 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding are “unrealistic.” It’s an irksome claim that is prompting breastfeeding advocates to suspect another formula-company-funded misinformation campaign designed to mislead mothers and undermine public health.

In fact, however, the Hoddinott paper, which follows a select group of mothers, partners, sisters, and grandmothers from pregnancy to 6 months after birth, offers a great deal of food for thought for those who care about supporting the wellbeing of families in the months after childbirth. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by astuebe

March 15, 2012 at 3:40 pm

ABM Responds to The New York Times’ “AIDS-Free Generation”

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To the Editor:

RE: “Clinton Aims for ‘AIDS-Free Generation’”, The New York Times, November 8, 2011

We applaud Secretary Clinton’s lofty vision of an AIDS-free generation. Halting vertical transmission will eliminate nearly all new childhood infections, approximately 370,000 in 2009. She hopes mothers won’t “infect their babies at birth or through breastfeeding” by 2015.

We’re concerned that readers may misinterpret the reports of her statement to suggest HIV-positive mothers should not breastfeed. On the contrary, the World Health Organization’s recommendations for infant feeding emphasize breastfeeding’s role as a pillar of child health, particularly in resource-poor regions where formula feeding lessens HIV-free survival. Making breastfeeding safer by providing antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to the mother and infant, akin to preventive regimens used during pregnancy and childbirth, optimizes survival while minimizing HIV-transmission. Thus, supporting mothers to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months followed by continued breastfeeding until a year while providing ARVs is the wisest use of precious PEPFAR funds – and goes a long way towards fulfilling Secretary Clinton’s vision for an “Aids-free generation” and healthy babies worldwide.

Caroline Chantry MD
Arthur I Eidelman MD, President,
Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

This letter was submitted to the editor of The New York Times

Written by bfmed

December 1, 2011 at 11:37 am

Improving the world, one breastfeeding dyad at a time

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This fall, I had the honour to represent the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) at the 64th annual conference of the UNO DPI/NGO in Bonn (Germany). The theme of this conference was “Sustainable Societies, Responsive Citizens”. This theme was discussed in plenary discussions, panel discussions, Round Tables and workshops. Emphasis was also placed on youth participation. They partly had their own program but also joined in the regular discussions. There was a large NGO exhibition, and between the discussions and through an official invitation for a reception by the city of Bonn, there was much time to meet with persons of organisations from around the world.
Read the rest of this entry »

Written by elienrouw

November 14, 2011 at 6:21 am

Mountains and hills in infant nutrition

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How do you imagine the Alps? Let’s have a look in Switzerland, Austria, Italy, France or Germany. Here you will find a wonderful panorama view: the mountains, lush green meadows, the flora and fauna, the rocks and stones, but also cultural elements like alpine farms, the goats and cows.

The Alps

Breastfeeding is, in a way, the “Alps” in infant nutrition -- and not only in nutrition.

Breastfeeding is, in a way, the “Alps” in infant nutrition — and not only in nutrition. Just as the Alps are not only about the mountain tops, but the whole landscape, so is breastfeeding is more than nutrition. The german word “stillen”, which means “soothing” actually expresses this much more clearly than the word breastfeeding. It is interplay between mother and child with many contributing factors: nutrition, immunisation and most of all an intensive bonding between a mother and her child. It is the seamless transition from the intra-uterine environment with constant contact and constant nourishment to extra-uterine world, with lots of skin-to skin contact and a very frequent feeding. It is the normal adaptation process of a newborn, a baby, and at the same time the normal adaptation process of the mother.

I am from the Netherlands. And we, in the Netherlands, are longing for the Alps. We already have the beginning. The Vaalserberg, at the borders of the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium, would be suitable. But it is not quite what it should be. So this mountain should be heightened-up a little bit. We could make it a 100% higher. That would do, wouldn’t it?
Now this Vaalserberg is 326 meter above sea-level (360 meters with the tower on it), and even if we would heighten it up 100% it still doesn’t have the height of the Alps. Try to further heighten it up? You have to be honest: It is not just the height: essential elements of the Alps are failing in the Netherlands. Flora and Fauna will never be that of the Alps landscape. And you cannot solve this problem with heightening up. Of course it is a good alternative, when you cannot have the Alps. It is a good recreation area, it has its own value for the people in the region and for holidays, but you cannot honestly say it is the Alps (even when some hotel owners want us to believe this – they call their hotel: Alpenblik – Alpview).


The Vaalserberg will never be the Alps

And so we have the parallel: formula is infant nutrition of acceptable quality, and in principle this quality can be improved. But as much as you can (and should) enhance this quality, it never will reach the standard of the original. It brings risks with it and disadvantages, for mother, child and society. When we do have the quality of the Alps, we should not be content with the Vaalserberg.

Elien Rouw is a physician in Bühl, Germany, and a member of ABM

Opinions expressed on the ABM blog are those of individual members, not the organization as a whole.

Written by elienrouw

November 3, 2011 at 2:49 pm

Highlights from Third Annual Summit on Breastfeeding: First Food–The Essential Role of Breastfeeding

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Riding home on the train from Washington DC Thursday night, I was utterly physically exhausted as my mind tumbled over everything I had heard during the past two days.  I was returning from the Third Annual Summit on Breastfeeding.  For those of you who aren’t familiar with this Summit, I am going to unapologetically copy from the announcement of this Summit, as they said it better than I can!

“The First Annual Summit, held in June 2009, marked the 25th anniversary of the Surgeon General’s Workshop on Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, a milestone event led by C. Everett Koop, MD in 1984. Dr. Koop also delivered opening remarks at this 21st century follow-up.

The Second Summit in June 2010 addressed the unmet health needs of underserved mothers and their vulnerable children associated with low rates of breastfeeding, working proactively toward reducing barriers to breastfeeding. The goal was to bring high-level visibility in order to generate timely and judicious policy recommendations for a national breastfeeding agenda under the new health reform plan.

The Third Annual Summit on Breastfeeding was just held June 29-30, 2011 to make sure that we continue our best efforts to guarantee support for First Food: The Essential Role of Breastfeeding.  The Summit again took place in Washington to ensure maximum visibility in the public policy arena.

With continued support from the Kellogg Foundation, key leaders in health and public policy, including high-level representatives from key federal agencies as well as hands-on grass roots administrators from important programs throughout the country and leaders from academic institutions, industry, nonprofits, and public agencies were invited.”

The significant accomplishments of the First Summit and the Second Summit are documented in special supplements of Breastfeeding Medicine.  The Third Summit will be published in detail in an upcoming issue of Breastfeeding Medicine—so be on the look-out for Volume 6 Issue 5 in October. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by kmarinellimd

July 4, 2011 at 8:30 am